When starting out, it can be hard to learn all the various terms used in computational redstone. This post is here to clear up as many terms as possible in a clear and concise manner. With this many terms, I don’t plan to go in-depth on all of them (e.g. I’ll explain what a CPU is but not the specifics on how it works) however, many terms will have links to relevant information. So just be aware that many terms have a lot more aspects you can learn about elsewhere.

I encourage any and all criticism, comments, or recommendations since I’d like this to be as complete and useful as possible.

Note: Each line with a right arrow can be opened by clicking


Updates get older as you go further down.

2024 March 19th

Removed square brackets around links
Added Redstone category
Added to A-Z:

  • Half Adder
  • Full Adder
  • Redcoder
  • Control Unit
Added Terms
  • Branch Misprediction
  • Branch Predictor
  • Branch
  • Cache
  • Comparator
  • Computational Redstone
  • GPU
  • Game Tick
  • Hard-Powered
  • Immediate
  • Input
  • Jump
  • Math Unit
  • NOOP
  • Octal
  • Output
  • Pipelining Hazard
  • Pipelining
  • Read After Write Hazard
  • Redstone Dust
  • Redstone Tick
  • Repeater
  • Signal Strength
  • Soft-Powered
  • Target Block
  • Ternary
  • Torch
  • Write After Read Hazard
  • Write After Write Hazard
2024 March 18th

I’m not sure this is a complete list of the changes, but you can always check the previous versions if you need the details
Added Theory category
Added various descriptions, including many of the new terms
Added links to various terms

Added to A-Z

- Accumulator
- Arithmetic Logic Unit
- Binary
- Bit
- Bit Width
- Byte
- Carry In
- Carry Out
- Cin
- Clock
- Cout
- D Flip-Flop
- Decimal
- Dual Read Register
- Edge-Triggered
- False
- Flip-Flop
- GB
- Gigabyte
- Gray Code
- Hex
- Hexadecimal
- Inverter
- JK Flip-Flop
- KB
- Kilobyte
- Level-Triggered
- MB
- Megabyte
- Nibble
- Off
- On
- One-Hot
- Pulse Extender
- Pulse Generator
- Read Only Memory
- Register
- Ripple-Carry Adder
- SR Flip-Flop
- Serial Circuit
- Signed Number
- T Flip-Flop
- TB
- Terabyte
- True
- Two’s Complement
- Unsigned Binary
- Unsigned Number

Added Terms

- Binary
- Signed Number
- Decimal
- Hexadecimal
- One-Hot
- Gray Code
- Two’s Complement
- True
- False
- Bit Width
- Bit
- Nibble
- Byte
- Kilobyte
- Megabyte
- Gigabyte
- Terabyte
- Carry In
- Carry Out
- Edge-Triggered
- Level-Triggered
- Combinational Circuit
- Serial Circuit
- Read Only Memory
- Redcoder
- Register
- Dual Read Register
- Accumulator
- Clock
- Pulse Generator
- Pulse Extender

2024 March 11th

Changed All Terms A-Z to a table
Changed Multiplexer and Demultiplexer to point to Mux and Demux respectively in All Terms A-Z

2024 March 10th

Added terms:

  • Combinational Circuit
  • Sequential Circuit
2024 March 9th

Removed headers for updates and descriptions
Added Adder Types Subcategory
Added All Terms A-Z
Changed descriptions to “click to open” to avoid categories being buried

Added terms:

  • Flip Flop
  • Latch

Added descriptions for:

  • Enable
2024 March 8th

Changed the Update date format from numeric YMD (2024-03-08) to a written month version (2024 March 8th)
Fixed the NOT Gate description
Added terms:

  • Program Counter
  • Program ROM
  • SR Flip Flop
  • D Flip Flop
  • T Flip Flop
  • JK Flip Flop
  • SR Latch
  • D Latch
  • T Latch
  • JK Latch

Added descriptions for:

  • Program Counter
  • Program ROM
  • Multiplier
  • Divider
2024 February 7th

Initial version
Largely incomplete list, will add more over time
Wrote a lot of terms with “Todo” since I wanna put them in but can’t be bothered to handle it all yet
Most of the existing terms lack links to resources and I’m not sure of the quality of those that do
I encourage any recommendations for links along with any other criticism/comments/etc.

Updates are hidden by default to avoid obscuring the terms below.

All Terms A-Z

A list of all terms along with which category they fall under.
The descriptions for each term are found in the specified category.

Note: When there are multiple options for a single A-Z term, they are listed and separated by //

All Terms (154)
Term Category
ALU See Arithmetic Logic Unit
AND Gate Logic Gates
Accumulator CPU Components
Adder Arithmetic Circuits
Adder-Subtractor Arithmetic Circuits
Address Memory Circuits
Arithmetic Logic Unit CPU Components
BCS See Borrow Carry Subtractor
Binary Theory
Bit Theory
Bit Length See Bit Width
Bit Width Theory
Borrow Carry Subtractor Arithmetic Circuits
Branch CPU Components
Branch Misprediction CPU Components
Branch Predictor CPU Components
Bus Miscellaneous
Bussing See Bus
Byte Theory
CCA See Carry Cancel Adder
CLA See Carry-Lookahead Adder
CLE See Carry Look Everywhere (Adder)
CPU See Central Processing Unit
CSA See Carry-Save Adder
Cache CPU Components
Carry Cancel Adder Arithmetic Circuits
Carry Look Everywhere (Adder) Arithmetic Circuits
Carry-Lookahead Adder Arithmetic Circuits
Carry-Save Adder Arithmetic Circuits
Central Processing Unit CPU Components
Clock CPU Components
Combinational Circuit Theory
Comparator Redstone
Computational Redstone Redstone
Control Unit CPU Components
D Flip-Flop Memory Circuits
D Latch Memory Circuits
Decimal Theory
Decoder Control Logic
Demultiplexer Control Logic
Demux See Demultiplexer
Divider Arithmetic Circuits
Dual Read Register CPU Components
Edge-Triggered Theory
Enable Memory Circuits
Encoder Control Logic
False Theory
False Gate Logic Gates
Flip-Flop Memory Circuits
Full Adder Arithmetic Circuits
GB See Gigabyte
GPU Miscellaneous
Game Tick Redstone
Gigabyte Theory
Gray Code Theory
Half Adder Arithmetic Circuits
Hard-Powered Redstone
Hex See Hexadecimal
Hexadecimal Theory
I/O See Input // Output
ICA See Instant Carry Adder
IMPLY Gate Logic Gates
IO See Input // Output
ISA See Instruction Set Architecture
Immediate CPU Components
Input Theory
Instant Carry Adder Arithmetic Circuits
Instruction Set Architecture CPU Components
Inverter See Redstone Torch // NOT Gate
JK Flip-Flop Memory Circuits
JK Latch Memory Circuits
Jump CPU Components
KB See Kilobyte
Kilobyte Theory
Latch Memory Circuits
Level-Triggered Theory
Logic Gate Logic Gates
MB See Megabyte
Math Unit CPU Components
Megabyte Theory
Multiplexer Control Logic
Multiplier Arithmetic Circuits
Mux See Multiplexer
NAND Gate Logic Gates
NIMPLY Gate Logic Gates
NOOP CPU Components
NOR Gate Logic Gates
NOT Gate Logic Gates
Nibble Theory
OR Gate Logic Gates
Octal Theory
Off See False
On See True
One’s Complement Theory
One-Hot Theory
Output Theory
PC See Program Counter
PROM See Program ROM
Pipelining CPU Components
Pipelining Hazard CPU Components
Program Counter CPU Components
Program ROM CPU Components
Pulse Extender Miscellaneous
Pulse Generator Miscellaneous
RAM See Random Access Memory
RAW See Read After Write Hazard
RCA See Ripple-Carry Adder
ROM See Read Only Memory
Random Access Memory CPU Components
Read Memory Circuits
Read After Write Hazard CPU Components
Read Only Memory Memory Circuits
Redcoder Control Logic
Redstone See Redstone Dust
Redstone Comparator See Comparator
Redstone Dust Redstone
Redstone Repeater See Repeater
Redstone Tick Redstone
Redstone Torch See Torch
Register CPU Components
Repeater Redstone
Ripple-Carry Adder Arithmetic Circuits
SR Flip-Flop Memory Circuits
SR Latch Memory Circuits
SS See Signal Strength
Serial Circuit Theory
Signal Strength Redstone
Signed Number Theory
Soft-Powered Redstone
Square Root Extractor Arithmetic Circuits
Subtractor Arithmetic Circuits
T Flip-Flop Memory Circuits
T Latch Memory Circuits
TB See Terabyte
Target Block Redstone
Terabyte Theory
Ternary Theory
Tick See Redstone Tick // See Game Tick
Torch Redstone
True Theory
True Gate Logic Gates
Two’s Complement Theory
Unsigned Binary See Binary
Unsigned Number See Binary
WAR See Write After Read Hazard
WAW See Write After Write Hazard
Write Memory Circuits
Write After Read Hazard CPU Components
Write After Write Hazard CPU Components
XNOR Gate Logic Gates
XOR Gate Logic Gates



Redstone Dust - A wire with 16 different signal strengths and 2 on/off states which connects various other components. The signal strength of redstone decays by 1 every block further
Redstone Torch - A component which inverts incoming signals
Redstone Repeater - A component which extends a binary signal with delay ranging 1-4 redstone ticks. It can also be locked by a powered repeater/comparator at its side
Comparator - A component which can perform 2 operations: Compare and Subtract. It has 3 inputs, 2 on the sides and 1 on the back, along with its output. If both sides have a signal the the larger of the 2 is used. Compare mode allows the back signal to pass if it is greater than or equal to the side signal. Subtract mode subtracts the side signal from the back signal. Comparators can also read containers and output a signal proportional to the “fullness”
Target Block - A block which redirects redstone towards itself

Signal Strength - A signal 0-15 that some redstone components use rather than just on/off
Soft-Powered - When a block is powered in a way that a repeater can draw a signal from but redstone dust cannot. This can be achieved by having a powered line of redstone dust connected to a block
Hard-Powered - When a block is powered such that both a repeater and redstone dust can draw a signal from it

Redstone Tick - A unit of time equal to 2 game ticks which redstone operates with. It is approximately 1/10th of a second
Game Tick - A unit of time for Minecraft’s game loop. It is approximately 1/20th of a second

Computational Redstone - Redstone circuits in the realm of computer parts


Binary - A number system where each digit can be either a 0 or 1
Signed Number - A binary number system which dedicates around half of all values to negative values

Ternary - A number system where each digit can be a number from 0 to 2
Octal -A number system where each digit can be a number from 0 to 7
Decimal - A number system where each digit can be a number from 0 to 9 (“normal numbers”)
Hexadecimal - A number system where each digit can be a number from 0 to 15 (0 to F)
One-Hot - A signal where the only valid state is exactly one line being on Wikipedia
Gray Code - A number system where adjacent numbers (+1 / -1) only differ by 1 bit

One’s Complement - I representation of signed numbers where a positive number can be made negative by inverting all bits
Two’s Complement - A representation for signed numbers where a positive value can be made negative by inverting all bits, then adding 1. It allows for addition of negative numbers as a method of subtraction without any additional processing
Binary Coded Decimal - An encoding of decimal digits in binary

True - The on state of a circuit
False - The off state of a circuit
Input - A place signals are sent into a circuit
Output - A place signals are sent out of a circuit

Bit Width - The number of allowed bits in a binary value (a specific value may contain less)
Bit - A single binary digit
Nibble - 4 binary digits
Byte - 8 binary digits
Kilobyte - 1,000 bytes
Megabyte - 1,000 kilobytes
Gigabyte - 1,000 megabytes
Terabyte - 1,000 gigabytes

Edge-Triggered - A circuit which becomes active as a signal changes from one state to another
Level-Triggered - A circuit which becomes active when a signal reaches a predetermined threshold

Combinational Circuit - Signals are sent down separate lines
Serial Circuit - Signals are sent down a single line, separated sequentially

Logic Gates

Logic Gate - The smallest unit of logic. Typically logic gates have 1 or 2 inputs. Gates aren’t a specific design but rather any design which performs the specified logic mattbatwings YT Video

True Gate - A logic gate with a constant on output
False Gate - A logic gate with a constant off output

NOT Gate - A logic gate where the output is on if the input is off and vice versa

OR Gate - A logic gate where the output is on if at least one input is on
NOR Gate - A logic gate where the output is on if both inputs are off

AND Gate - A logic gate where the output is on if both inputs are on
NAND Gate - A logic gate where the output is on if at least one input is off

XOR Gate - A logic gate where the output is on if the inputs are different
XNOR Gate - A logic gate where the output is on if the inputs are the same

IMPLY Gate - A logic gate (A imply B) where the output is off if A is on and B is off
NIMPLY Gate - A logic gate (A imply B) where the output is on if A is on and B is off

Arithmetic Circuits

Adder - A circuit which performs addition, typically in Binary mattbatwings YT Video

Half Adder - A circuit which adds a pair of 1 bit values
Full Adder - A circuit which, if multiple are connected, can add values of any size
Carry In - The bit “carried” from the previous bit, similar to carrying when adding on paper
Carry Out - The bit “carried” from the next bit, similar to carrying when adding on paper

Adder Types

Ripple-Carry Adder - An adder which is made up of Full Adders such that the Carry Out of one Full Adder leads into the Carry In of the next Full Adder. Named for the way carrying has a propagation delay for each Full Adder Wikipedia
Instant Carry Adder - Todo. bennyscube YT Video
Carry-Lookahead Adder - An adder which builds on top of RCA by computing each carry separately, avoiding the propagation delay
Carry Look Everywhere (Adder) - A Minecraft-optimized version of CLA. bennyscube YT Video
Carry Cancel Adder - An adder which uses signal strength and instant diodes to compute all carries at the same time bennyscube YT Video
Carry-Save Adder - Todo.

Subtractor - A circuit which performs subtraction, typically in Binary
Borrow Carry Subtractor - Todo.

Adder-Subtractor - A circuit which can switch between addition and subtraction

Multiplier - A circuit which performs multiplication, typically in Binary
Divider - A circuit which performs division, typically in Binary

Square Root Extractor - A circuit which computes the square root of a number, typically in Binary

Memory Circuits

Read - Loading data from memory
Write - Saving data to memory
Address - A location in memory or a program
Enable - If enable is on, then it allows another signal to pass. (i.e. write enable only allows writing to memory if the enable is on)

Read Only Memory - Memory which cannot be modified, but can be read

Flip Flops

Flip-Flop - An edge-triggered memory circuit
SR Flip Flop - Todo.
D Flip Flop - Todo.
T Flip Flop - Todo.
JK Flip Flop - Todo.


Latch - A level-triggered memory circuit
SR Latch - Todo.
D Latch - Todo.
T Latch - Todo.
JK Latch - Todo.

Control Logic

Multiplexer - A circuit with inputs, an output, and a selection signal. The selection signal chooses which of the inputs reaches the output
Demultiplexer - A circuit with an input, outputs, and a selection signal. The selection signal chooses which output receives the input.
Encoder - A circuit which turns a one-hot input into a binary output
Decoder - A circuit which turns a binary input into a one-hot output
Redcoder - A circuit which is similar to a decoder, but the input is signal strength

CPU Components

Central Processing Unit - A turing complete circuit which executes the steps outlined in a program

Control Unit - A circuit which decodes the instructions into signals for the various CPU components

Arithmetic Logic Unit - A circuit which can perform various arithmetic and logical operations.
Math Unit - A dedicated circuit which does various math computations (multiplication, division, square root, etc.)


Register - Memory directly connected to the ALU’s inputs and outputs
Dual Read Register - Registers that allow for 2 to be read at once
Random Access Memory - Memory which can be written to/ read from at arbitrary addresses
Accumulator - A dedicated register which stores the output of the ALU
Cache - Memory which is used to store commonly used data such that when that address is called upon, it can be retrieved from the cache, faster than with RAM

Pipelining - When a CPU handles multiple instructions at once, each in a different part of the instruction process


Branch Predictor - A circuit which estimates whether the program will branch to avoid branch hazards
Pipelining Hazard - A pitfall which is caused by the pipelining of a CPU
Read After Write Hazard - A hazard where two instructions use the same address. A write instruction, but the order is executed in reverse. This means that the read instruction has outdated data that the write instruction was meant to update
Write After Read Hazard - A hazard where two instructions use the same address. A write instruction comes after a read instruction, but the order is executed in reverse. This means that the read instruction has newer data instead of the earlier data it needed
Write After Write Hazard - A hazard where two write instructions, acting on the same address, are executed in the wrong order
Branch Misprediction - When the program chooses to handle a branch differently than what the branch predictor decided

Instruction Set Architecture - The set of instructions that can be used when programming the CPU

Instruction Set

NOOP - An instruction that does nothing
Jump - An instruction which jumps to another instruction
Branch - An instruction which jumps to another instruction if a condition is met
Immediate - A value included explicitly in an instruction

Program ROM - ROM which holds the program
Program Counter - A circuit, including a clock, that keeps track of the current instruction being executed
Clock - A circuit which continuously gives signals that are generally evenly spaced


Bus - A connection between two components
Pulse Generator - A circuit which sends a brief signal when activated
Pulse Extender - A circuit which takes in a pulse and outputs a signal that lasts longer
GPU - A circuit similar to a CPU which generally has simpler operations and executes instructions on multiple pieces of data at once


You have written not wrong. You said if inp is on out is on

Also I’d add Programm counter and program memory to CPU components

Fixed and updated

1 Like

Nice. I’d also send U some “texts” if U want to!

Cleaned up the description section so none of them are too far down and I added the terms A-Z to make it easier to find terms.

1 Like

Btw (sry if this gets annoying) I’d add serial and combinational multiplayer

But I could write some texts and send them to U on DC if U want?!

Could just send it here

1 Like

Encoder- A circuit which encodes a single input into multiple outputs.

Decoder- A circuit which decodes multiple inputs into a single output.

Redcoder- A Redstone specific decoder that takes a specific Signal Strength as an input and turns the one respective output on.

MUX/Multiplexer- A circuit that can chose between multiple inputs where only one is chosen by turning the respective control line on.

DEMUX/Demultiplexer- A circuit which gets one input and choses between sending that input to one of the multiple outputs by turning the respective control line on.

Also for Control logic:

Clock- A circuit which gives of a certain pulse every few ticks depending on the settings and wether it is turned on. It usually controls the propagation of signals and the controls of a CPU.

Pulse Extender- A circuit which extends a certain given pulse to a longer pulse.

Pulse Generator- A circuit which usually shortens a given pulse.

Ram/ Random Access Memory- A circuit which can store data to a specific Address (Memory Cell) and can later read that certain data.

Reg/Register- A circuit which can store data to a specific Address (Memory Cell) and can later read that certain data.

Dual Read Registers- A circuit where two of the registers (Memory Cells) can be read independently.

PC/Program counter- A circuit which counts up in binary (usually every clock pulse) and also can be given a certainty binary value where it then starts incrementing from (Branching).

Prom/Program Memory- A circuit which stores a Program (defined by the ISA) and can read that information onto a bus when a certain cell is being read by the Program Counter.

CU/Control Unit- A decoder that decodes the output from the Program Memory into a Certain instruction for the CPU to use.

Made a lot of edits, including the terms you mentioned

1 Like

Also I’d add:
Math Unit- A dedicated circuit in a CPU which does Math (usually multiplication, division and square root)

to the CPU category.
I’d also add a category “Redstone” where redstone Components are explained.

Added that and a bunch more stuff

1 Like

What’s about ternary?


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Redstone torch- A component which inverts incoming signals and gives of a Signal Strength of 15.

don’t think that would be needed

Its me again sorry. I don’t know if it’d be clear for new players, but redcoders decode SS into decimal. (Also I’d add SS as an abbreviation.